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The author is Shantanu Dhingra, a fourth-year student at National Law University Odisha.


The SEBI Master Circular dated July 31, 2023 for Alternative Investment Funds (“AIFs”) significantly impacts AIF operations in India. Its guidelines on Credit Default Swaps (“CDS”) usage by AIFs, a key tool for managing credit risk, present complex legal and regulatory challenges. This article critically examines these challenges, specifically focusing on the Master Circular's provisions on CDS.

Unpacking the SEBI Master Circular's Provisions on CDS

The SEBI Master Circular, which provides a regulatory framework for AIFs' use of CDS, is marked by inherent ambiguities that could potentially lead to legal disputes. The provisions, designed to govern CDS use and protect investor interests, present a complex regulatory puzzle. A key area of contention is the circular's approach to 'hedging' in CDS transactions. The circular permits AIFs to engage in hedging subject to Board-specified guidelines and to buy or sell CDS under certain conditions. However, it fails to provide explicit definitions or clear guidelines on what constitutes 'hedging', potentially leading to misuse and varied interpretations.

These ambiguities and potential areas of legal contention underscore the need for a more detailed and explicit regulatory framework for the use of CDS by AIFs.

Balancing Act: Investor Protection vs. Market Efficiency

The SEBI Master Circular's stance on CDS transactions by AIFs, particularly as outlined in Chapter 9, navigates a delicate tightrope between investor protection and market efficiency. This equilibrium, while essential for financial market stability and growth, poses intricate regulatory conundrums for SEBI. Chapter 9 of the SEBI Master Circular, while aiming to protect investors, may inadvertently impact market efficiency. The provision restricts Category I and II AIFs to use CDS exclusively for hedging, limiting their risk management strategies. This could prevent these funds from fully exploiting the benefits of CDS.

The differential treatment of Category III AIFs, which can use CDS beyond hedging, could create market distortions and inefficiencies. Additionally, the requirement of permissible leverage, while crucial for risk control, could restrict AIFs' ability to take calculated risks- a key aspect of their role in the financial market. For instance, the case of AIG during the 2008 financial crisis serves as a stark reminder of the potential fallout of a lack of clear definitions and guidelines on 'hedging' in the context of CDS. AIG's massive CDS trades, justified as a 'hedge', led to significant losses, underscoring the risks associated with a lax interpretation of 'hedging.' Furthermore, the Master Circular insists that all CDS transactions occur on a platform regulated by SEBI or RBI, a move ostensibly aimed at enhancing transparency and disclosure. However, this requirement could inadvertently stifle market efficiency by limiting the platforms on which AIFs can transact in CDS.

In the SEBI Master Circular, balancing investor protection and market efficiency in CDS transactions is a complex task. The provisions, while well-intentioned, reveal the tension between these objectives. For instance, the Circular's approach to hedging lacks explicit guidelines, creating potential for misuse and compromising investor protection. Conversely, strict interpretations could hinder market efficiency by burdening AIFs with excessive regulations. The 2012 "London Whale" incident at JPMorgan exemplifies this tension. The bank's substantial CDS trades, classified as a 'hedge,' resulted in significant losses, illustrating the risks associated with a loose interpretation of 'hedging'. This case underscores the need for clear guidelines that balance risk management flexibility for AIFs and investor protection.

The Legal Consequences of Non-Compliance: A Critical Review

The SEBI Master Circular on guidelines for AIFs spells out strict consequences for non-compliance, demonstrating a robust regulatory framework. The guidelines mandate strict adherence to norms governing CDS transactions, and any violation may result in stringent punitive actions, such as monetary penalties and potential legal proceedings.

As per the circular, it is incumbent on the AIFs to disclose all disciplinary history, including outstanding or pending litigation, criminal or civil prosecution, disputes, non-payment of statutory dues, defaults against banks or financial institutions, and contingent liabilities in their Placement Memorandum (“PPM”). These stipulations act as a safeguard, fostering transparency and accountability.

However, this regulatory structure is not devoid of criticism. As laid out in the Master Circular, while penalties serve as a crucial deterrent to non-compliance, their adequacy could be challenged, particularly in scenarios where the possible gains from non-compliance overshadow the penalty's financial burden.

While the SEBI Master Circular’s regulations for CDS transactions by AIFs are strict, the present review indicates the need for further refinement to ensure a more effective compliance and enforcement framework. The continually evolving market dynamics, the potential regulatory arbitrage opportunities, and the growing complexity of transactions necessitate this refinement. For instance, The 2012 HSBC money laundering scandal highlighted the critical need for cross-border regulatory cooperation. HSBC failed to enforce anti-money laundering controls, allowing money from drug trafficking to flow through the U.S. financial system. This case demonstrated the global impact of financial malpractices, the dangers of regulatory arbitrage, and the essential role of international cooperation between regulatory bodies from the U.S., the U.K., Mexico, and others. It emphasized the need for harmonised regulatory frameworks and stricter compliance and enforcement mechanisms to prevent similar incidents, showcasing how lapses in one part of the world can affect global financial integrity.

Lessons from the Global Regulatory Environment for CDS in AIFs

The global regulatory landscape for CDS in AIFs offers valuable insights that can inform SEBI's approach towards regulating these complex financial instruments. A comparative analysis of the regulatory approach in jurisdictions such as the US and EU reveals a diverse range of strategies, each with its own merits and drawbacks.

In the US, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act introduced sweeping reforms to the regulation of CDS. Title VII of the Act, for instance, mandates central clearing and exchange trading for standardised CDS, enhancing transparency and reducing counterparty risk in the CDS market. However, the Act has also been criticised for potentially stifling innovation and limiting the flexibility of market participants. The case of MetLife Inc. v. Financial Stability Oversight Council, where MetLife successfully challenged its designation as a systemically important financial institution (“SIFI”), underscores the potential legal challenges arising from stringent regulations. In this case, MetLife contested its SIFI designation on technical grounds, arguing that the FSOC did not adhere to its own guidelines and procedures for risk assessment. MetLife's legal challenge focused on the FSOC's analysis and use of hypothetical scenarios rather than empirical evidence to justify the designation. Specifically, MetLife argued that the FSOC failed to conduct an activity-specific risk analysis and did not adequately consider the actual likelihood of MetLife experiencing financial distress, nor the company's existing risk management practices. The court found that the FSOC's designation process was arbitrary and capricious, indicating a failure to follow proper administrative procedure and to provide a reasoned explanation for its decision. This technical critique of the FSOC's methodology led to the rescission of MetLife's SIFI status, setting a precedent for how financial regulatory bodies must apply their analytical frameworks and justify their decisions.

In contrast, the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (“EMIR”) in the EU has taken a different approach. EMIR imposes stringent risk mitigation techniques for non-centrally cleared over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivative contracts, including CDS. Specifically, Article 11 of EMIR outlines the risk-management procedures that should be employed for OTC derivative contracts not cleared by a central counterparty. These include timely confirmation of the terms of the contract, portfolio reconciliation and compression, and dispute resolution mechanisms. While this approach recognises the need for bespoke CDS that may not be suitable for central clearing, it also raises concerns about the potential for regulatory arbitrage.

Recommendations and Best Practices

Upon analysing global regulatory practices, several targeted and feasible recommendations emerge for refining the SEBI Master Circular's regulations for CDS in AIFs.

Comprehensive Definition of 'Hedging': Drawing inspiration from the Dodd-Frank Act's approach in the US, it is suggested that the SEBI incorporates a comprehensive definition of 'hedging'. This would deter potential misinterpretation and misuse, thereby bolstering investor protection. However, given the unique characteristics of the Indian market, it is also recommended that SEBI considers incorporating a materiality threshold for hedging. This would allow a certain degree of risk-taking that is inherent in the AIF business model. A clear definition would not only provide legal certainty but also prevent the misuse of CDS for speculative purposes under the guise of hedging.

Risk Mitigation Practices: Aligning with the  EMIR’s risk mitigation practices for non-centrally cleared CDS could be beneficial. However, successful implementation would necessitate a phased approach, with an initial focus on larger AIFs. This would help in avoiding the kind of systemic risk revealed in the AIG case during the 2008 financial crisis. By adopting such practices, SEBI could ensure that AIFs have robust risk management procedures in place, thereby enhancing investor protection.

Tiered Penalty System: A tiered penalty system reflecting the violation's severity, similar to practices seen in the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission's enforcement actions, could create fair deterrents, thus promoting proactive compliance among AIFs. Implementing this recommendation hinges on the robustness of enforcement mechanisms and fostering a compliance-oriented culture. A tiered penalty system would ensure that the punishment is proportionate to the severity of the violation, thereby acting as an effective deterrent against non-compliance.

Differential Treatment of Category III AIFs: Given the differential treatment of Category III AIFs in the Master Circular, SEBI could consider introducing additional safeguards for these funds. For instance, SEBI could require Category III AIFs to disclose more detailed information about their CDS transactions, or to maintain additional capital to cover potential losses from these transactions. This would help mitigate the additional risks associated with the greater flexibility granted to Category III AIFs in their use of CDS.


In conclusion, the SEBI Master Circular's regulation of CDS in AIFs presents a complex interplay between investor protection and market efficiency. Through a critical examination of the Master Circular's provisions, case law references, and global best practices, this article has offered nuanced recommendations for refining these regulations. The goal of these is to strike a balance between investor protection, market efficiency, and innovation in the CDS market, while acknowledging the implementation barriers and drawing from global best practices. The journey through this regulatory maze underscores the need for continuous dialogue, research, and reform in this evolving field.

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